Since Tycho’s observations did not show a parallax, he proved that the comet must be really far away, not an object in the atmosphere but well beyond the distance to the Moon. Generally it can take years to work out a new or complex idea, and it requires careful consideration and scrutiny from the scientific community before radically new ideas are accepted. It also shows that science isn’t perfect – it keeps looking to improve itself!

At any point where the pencil may be, the sum of the distances from the pencil to the two tacks is a constant length—the length of the string. Newton was the integrator, the unifier, the organizer, of all the scientific knowledge available at the time. He established a solid platform on which all modern science could be built. Principia Mathematica is still considered by many to be the greatest scientific book ever written. He unified the work of Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler into one scientific theory that has stood the test of time. By the time Isaac Newton entered college, the scientific revolution of the 17th century was well underway.

He didn’t use a telescope; all observations were made with his unaided eye. He just did the same observations over and over and over and over… By repeating the observation, you reduce the amount of inaccuracy. All of Hipparchus’s fixes worked pretty good at explaining the general motions of the planets, though they were still not as precise at predicting the motions of the planets – more work needed to be done.

There, in the year before his death, Brahe found a most able young mathematician, Johannes Kepler, to assist him in analyzing his extensive planetary data. A corollary to Newton’s ideas was the so called Clockwork Universemodel. A concept that states that the total momentum of the Universe is conserved, interactions redistribute the momentum, but the total never changes.

For one thing, Copernicus held to the classical idea that the planets traveled in perfect circles. It wasn’t until the 1600s that Johannes Kepler proposed the orbits were instead ellipses. As such, Copernicus’ model featured the same epicycles that marred Ptolemy’s work, although there were fewer. One of the glaring mathematical problems with this model was that the planets, on occasion, would what does la chona mean travel backward across the sky over several nights of observation. To account for it, the current model, based on the Greek astronomer and mathematician Ptolemy’s view, incorporated a number of circles within circles — epicycles — inside of a planet’s path. Some planets required as many as seven circles, creating a cumbersome model many felt was too complicated to have naturally occurred.

This also easily explains why the sidereal and synodic periods for the Moon are different. The motions that we see over the course of the day are due to the rotation of the Earth on its axis. Have everything go around the Sun including not only the Earth but also all the other planets in the solar system and the stars. We already went over this, and how the rotation of the sphere explained the motion of the stars (though of course it’s wrong, like everything else on this list).

By the time Regiomontanus finished the work in 1463, it was an important commentary on the Almagestas well, pointing out, for example, that Ptolemy’s lunar theory did not accord with observations. He noted that Ptolemy showed the moon to be at various times twice as far from the earth as at other times, which should make the moon appear twice as big. At the time, moreover, there was active debate over Ptolemy’s deviations from Aristotle’s requirement of uniform circular motion. Although Copernicus’ model changed the layout of the universe, it still had its faults.